May 24, 2024

Top DevOps Interview Questions And Answers in 2024

Passionate about the field of DevOps? Then you’ve come to the correct article. On the DevOps Interview Questions page, I’ve provided a laundry list of questions that interviewers may use to find the best candidates for the DevOps position. Nearly 30,000 Edureka DevOps learners from 60 countries and the knowledge of Edureka’s industry professionals went into making this list.

One must keep in mind that DevOps is not merely a collection of tools, but rather an entire culture and style of thinking. A connected toolchain of technologies is necessary to enable collaborative change, and a cultural transformation is necessary to implement DevOps, which blends operations with development. The implementation of DevOps and the capacity for adaptation and collaboration differs between organizations due to the fact that the DevOps philosophy is still in its early stages. But if you put in the time and effort to learn DevOps, you’ll be an asset to any company.

We are happy to help you become a certified DevOps Engineer by providing a methodical framework for improving your DevOps abilities. We guarantee that after you complete the DevOps Certification, you will be competent in a wide range of DevOps positions inside the business.

What are the requirements to become a DevOps Engineer?

In order to fill DevOps positions, companies need candidates with specific skill sets. The ones that matter the most are:

Proficiency in using Windows PowerShell DSC, SaltStack, Chef, Puppet, or Ansible for IT automation.
Proficient in numerous web languages, including Ruby, Python, PHP, and Java.
Ability to work well with people in a variety of settings and roles through effective communication and teamwork.
You can begin preparing for your DevOps interview right away if you possess the aforementioned abilities. Rest assured, our DevOps certification training is here to assist you in becoming a DevOps expert.

Putting myself in your position allowed me to organize the questions that follow. If you’re interested in becoming a DevOps expert, you’ll find that most of the blog posts are written with you in mind. Additionally, I have organized the questions as follows:

Top 120+ DevOps Interview Questions

Q1.What is DevOps?

DevOps is a methodology for creating software that integrates practices from both software development and information technology operations. Its goals are to promote teamwork, automation, and continuous improvement. Its stated goal is to streamline software delivery while simultaneously improving update quality, speed, and stability. Software development and release can be made more effective and quicker with the use of DevOps principles such as collaboration, automation, and continuous integration and delivery.

Q2. What are the fundamental differences between DevOps & Agile?

The differences between the two are listed down in the table below.

Q3. what exactly is a DevOps Engineer?

Experts in software development, information technology operations, and system administration work together as a DevOps Engineer to help businesses implement DevOps principles. When it comes to the efficient and effective delivery of software applications, DevOps Engineers are important in bridging the gap between the development and operations teams.

One possible list of things a DevOps Engineer has to do is:

  1. Collaboration: Encouraging cross-functional teams, such as development and operations, to communicate and work together to achieve common goals and streamline processes.

Second, automation entails creating and executing routines to manage infrastructure and configuration, produce, test, and deliver software.

  1. Creating and managing CI/CD pipelines to facilitate regular and dependable software releases is the third component.

Fourth, Infrastructure as Code (IaC): Using the tenets of IaC to code-based configuration and infrastructure management for simple replication and scaling.

  1. Monitoring and Performance: Establishing measurements for performance and tools to track system health, spot problems, and solve them before they escalate.
  2. Security and Compliance: Making sure everything is in line with industry norms and standards and incorporating security measures into the development and deployment process.
  3. Cloud Services: Developing resilient and scalable applications and infrastructure through the use of cloud platforms and services.
  4. Support and Troubleshooting: Assisting the development and operations teams with technical issues and fixing software deployment, performance, and infrastructure-related problems.
  5. Ongoing Education: Keeping abreast of cutting-edge DevOps resources, methods, and standards to enhance software delivery procedures for the company.

A DevOps Engineer is essential in fostering an organization-wide mindset of automation, collaboration, and continuous improvement. Their expertise in both software development and IT operations allows them to improve application delivery, expedite the development lifecycle, and boost software development project efficiency and innovation. Think about enrolling in the DevOps Masters Program to get the knowledge and experience you need to succeed in the ever-changing world of development operations. Learn the ins and outs of your field while gaining practical experience with state-of-the-art equipment and completing real-world projects. Prepare yourself for a prosperous DevOps career with the help of a dedicated mentor and a credential that is respected in the field.

In your opinion, why is DevOps necessary?

I think the overall market trend should be explained first in this response. Businesses are experimenting with smaller feature releases in the hopes of finding a better way to get them to consumers. Customers are quite satisfied as a result of the various benefits, such as improved software quality, rapid feedback from customers, etc. For this to happen, businesses must:

Raise the frequency of deployments
New releases with a reduced failure rate
Decreased time required to resolve issues
Improved recovery time after a new release crash

DevOps satisfies all these criteria and facilitates the attainment of software delivery without hitches. Companies that have used DevOps to attain performance levels that were unimaginable even five years ago include Etsy, Google, and Amazon, to name a few. With top-notch dependability, security, and stability, they release hundreds—if not thousands—of lines of code daily.

In order to gauge your proficiency in DevOps, I would want you to be familiar with the distinction between Agile and DevOps. That is the focus of the following inquiry.

Q5. how does DevOps vary from Agile and SDLC?

The following explanation is what I would recommend:

Agile is an approach to software development that is based on a set of principles and values. As an example, you can apply the Agile principles and ideals to transform your ideas into functional software. However, it’s possible that the program is only deployed in a development environment or on a developer’s own laptop. Your goal should be to find a straightforward and secure method to integrate such software into your production infrastructure as soon as possible. The methods and technologies of DevOps are necessary for this task.

To sum up, while Agile software development approach is all about making software, DevOps is about making sure that software is developed and deployed in the most secure and dependable way possible. To learn more about how DevOps has developed, you can visit this blog.

Be ready to address questions pertaining to the DevOps tools you mentioned in your previous response.

Q6. What are the best tools for DevOps? What kind of tools have you used?
Here are a some of the most popular DevOps tools:

The Guidance and Review Tool (Git)
A Continuous Integration tool called Jenkins
One Continuous Testing tool is Selenium.
Performer, Chef Deployment and Configuration Management Tools: Ansible
Software for Continuous Monitoring (Nagios)
The containerization tool known as Docker
Be sure to include the aforementioned tools in your response, but feel free to list any other tool you choose.

There are two potential solutions to the second portion of the question:

You can claim to have worked on all of the aforementioned tools for creating high-quality software and reliably distributing it if you have expertise with them.

If you’re just familiar with a subset of the tools listed above, you can specify which ones you’re an expert in and claim to have a general understanding of the others.

Q7. How are these tools coordinated with one another?

A generic logical flow with all processes automated for painless delivery is provided below. Nevertheless, depending on the need, this flow can differ from one company to another.

Git and other version control system tools keep track of the code while developers work on it.
When developers make modifications to this code, they commit those changes to the Git repository.
With the help of the Git plugin, Jenkins retrieves this code from the repository and builds it using Ant or Maven.
Testing is carried out using technologies like Selenium when Jenkins delivers the code to the test environment, which is prepared using configuration management systems like Puppet.
Even the production server is created and maintained by tools like puppet. Jenkins sends the code for deployment after it passes testing.
Instruments such as Nagios keep tabs on it after deployment.
Docker containers offer a platform for testing the build’s functionality.

Q8. Describe the DevOps pipeline .
The DevOps pipeline, which is short for “continuous integration and delivery,” is a set of automated procedures that helps move software applications from the development to the production environment in a continuous and reliable manner. It is a cornerstone of DevOps approaches, allowing teams to automate and simplify the software development lifecycle, from initial code changes to deployment.

Important Steps in the DevOps Process:

1) Version Control and Code Commit: When developers make changes to their code, they save them to a version control system like Git. With this step, the pipeline is triggered to begin the build and deployment procedure.

The second step is continuous integration (CI), which involves automatically building the application, compiling the code, and running automated tests after each code commit to make sure the new code is compatible with the old codebase.

  1. Artifact Generation: When continuous integration (CI) runs well, it creates deployment-ready artifacts like binaries or packages.

Fourth, Continuous Delivery (CD): In CD, the produced artifacts are sent to pre-production or staging environments for additional validation and testing.

4. Automated Testing: During the CD stage, the application’s quality and correctness are checked by executing automated tests, which include unit tests, integration tests, and acceptance tests.

The sixth step is deployment, which occurs automatically once the program passes all tests in the CD stage and is ready to be used by customers or in production.

The pipeline keeps an eye on the application’s performance and logs after it’s in production, giving the development team helpful input.

Modern software development approaches revolve around the DevOps pipeline, which helps teams reliably and efficiently create high-quality software. It promotes the three pillars of DevOps methodology: automation, continuous integration, and collaboration.

Nine, what are the benefits of a DevOps approach?
This question asks for anecdotal evidence of how DevOps was useful to you in a prior position. You can list the benefits here if you don’t have relevant experience.

Advantages in terms of technology:

Software delivery that is continuous
Issues that are easier to resolve
Issues are resolved more quickly
Positive effects on the company:

Enhanced feature delivery speed
Enhanced reliability of operational settings
Less time spent fixing and maintaining and more time to add value

Q10. Give an overview of some of DevOps’ most important advantages.

Streamlined software development and faster delivery.
DevOps approach is known for its flexibility and ability to swiftly react to changes.
Greater product quality, as compared to earlier software development techniques, reduces project-related uncertainty.
There is communication between the development and operations teams. (i.e., there has been an uptick in team-to-team communication).
Adding automation to continuous integration and continuous deployment increases efficiency.
Improved customer satisfaction is the result.

Q11. Among the many benefits of DevOps, what is the most crucial one?

The primary goal of implementing DevOps, in my opinion, is to minimize risks associated with software quality assurance and compliance while expediting the release of changes into production. This is where DevOps mostly aims to help. View this DevOps tutorial blog for more information.

On the other hand, there are a plethora of other benefits of DevOps. For instance, when the Ops and Dev teams work together to produce high-quality software, the result is increased customer satisfaction because of the improved communication and working relationships between the two groups.

Q12. Give an example of a real-world application of DevOps.

Feel free to include any of the various sectors that are utilizing DevOps. Here’s an example:
Etsy is an online marketplace where users may buy and sell one-of-a-kind handmade or vintage goods, as well as one-of-a-kind products made in factories. Etsy had a hard time with very sluggish site upgrades that would often bring the site offline. It had an impact on sales for millions of Etsy sellers and may have sent them packing for a competitor.

Etsy moved away from its waterfall strategy, which resulted in twice-weekly full-site deployments lasting four hours, and toward an agile approach with the support of a new technical management team. As of now, it boasts a completely automated deployment pipeline and, according to reports, 50 deployments per day with minimal downtime thanks to its continuous delivery processes.

Q13. Give an account of your experience and knowledge in software development as well as technical operations at a company you’ve previously worked for.
In your response, you should talk about your background and try to illustrate how adaptable you were in your prior work. Here is an example for you to consider:
Working in a mission-critical, online setting around the clock is the norm for DevOps engineers. I could easily adjust to on-call responsibilities and step up to the plate when needed to handle live system issues. In order to facilitate continuous software deployments, I automated processes and found success with them. In addition to my background in Agile, my skillset includes experience with public and private clouds, scripting and automation using languages like Python and PHP, and tools like Puppet and Chef.

Q14. What are the DevOps anti-patterns?

In most cases, people will stick to a pattern. You are effectively embracing an anti-pattern if you continue to blindly follow a pattern that does not work for your business, even when it is routinely accepted by others. Dispel the myths around DevOps. Among them are:

DevOps is a methodology
Are Agile and DevOps interchangeable?
We should establish a distinct DevOps team.
With DevOps, we won’t have any issues.
DevOps is short for “developers Leading the Manufacturing Process
Continuous Integration and Operations (DevOps)
DevOps does not revolve around development.
DevOps is not pushed by the IT department.
Because We’re Different, We Can’t Use DevOps
Problems with DevOps – They’re not the right individuals for us.

Q15. Explain the different phases in DevOps methodology?

The following are the stages that make up the DevOps lifecycle:

The requirements of the project, as well as other aspects of the project, such as the time required for each stage, the budget, etc., are considered in detail during the planning stage. By doing so, all members of the team will have a basic understanding of the project.
Programming—Here, the code is crafted in accordance with the specifications provided by the client. In this context, codes are expressed as discrete units.
Construct—During this phase, the units are constructed.
At this point, we test it to make sure it’s error-free before sending it back for re-building.
“Integrate” means to bring together all of the code units.
This stage involves deploying codeDevOpsNow to the client’s environment.
Execute – If necessary, operations are carried out on the code.
Here in the client’s environment, monitoring is carried out for the application.

Q16: Explain how you have worked with a company in the past and what you know about software development and technical operations.

How often is deployment? The frequency of feature deployment is quantified here.
Rate of change failure: This metric tracks the total number of deployment failures.
Recovery time after a deployment failure is measured by the Mean Time to Recovery (MTTR).

Q17: How can a DevOps team be measured for success? What are the key performance indicators?

DevOps teams utilize KPIs, or Key Performance Indicators, to track their progress, spot problems, and find solutions. Because of this, the DevOps team is able to boost productivity, which in turn affects income.

A DevOps team can keep tabs on a wide variety of key performance indicators. A few examples are these:

The number of failed deployments is measured by change failure rates.
The time it takes to get back up and running after a failed deployment is known as the mean time to recovery (MTTR).
Lead time: This metric is useful for gauging how long it takes to deploy to a production environment.
This metric tracks the regularity with which new features are released.
The change volume metric quantifies the extent to which new code differs from the original code.
The overall amount of time spent developing an application is measured by its cycle time.
Customer Ticket: This metric allows us to track the total number of user-identified errors.
You may find out how often an application is down by looking at its availability.
We can gauge the amount of problems that require early detection by looking at the defect escape rate.
You may learn a lot about the efficacy of your application monitoring and response time procedures from the moment of detection.

Q18. Why is DevOps all the rage now?
We are aware that two additional software development paradigms existed prior to DevOps:

Models: Waterfall, Agile

Weaknesses of the waterfall approach include one-way communication and its restriction to internal processes. This was circumvented in Agile by incorporating customer-company contact through feedback-taking. However, there is also another problem with this model’s communication between the operations and development teams, which slows down output. The concept of DevOps is first introduced here. With the automation capability included, it helps the development team and the operation team work together. As a result, output is accelerated. Testing becomes an integral part of the development process with the help of automation. Which led in detecting the bugs at the very first stage which boosted the speed and efficiency.

Q19: What role does AWS play in DevOps?

Among the well-known cloud service providers, AWS stands out. Some advantages of AWS DevOps are:

All of the DevOps resources are provided by AWS and are quite flexible.
With AWS, we can scale by launching many instances, each with its own pool of resources for data storage and processing.
Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) and Other Forms of Automation: AWS Offers These Services
At the time of instance creation, AWS offers security features like IAM.

Q20. Describe configuration management?

Managing the configuration of software, hardware, and other components of an information technology system is known as configuration management. Version control, change management, deployment automation, and consistent settings are all part of it. As a result, you know the system is trustworthy, consistent, and up to code. Configuration management is now an essential part of all IT activities, including software release and system administration.

Q21: Why is configuration management important for DevOps?

Software development and deployment may be made more efficient, consistent, and stable with the help of configuration management, which is a crucial component of DevOps. Some of the most important reasons why DevOps relies on configuration management are:

  1. Reproducibility and Consistency: Configuration management makes sure that development, testing, and production environments, software components, and infrastructure are consistently set up and maintained. Because of this uniformity, teams can consistently recreate environments, which helps to minimize mistakes and guarantee predictable behavior throughout deployments.
  2. Reliable and Automated Deployments: DevOps teams can automate deployments with configuration management systems, which reduces the need for human interaction and the likelihood of mistakes. Reduced time-to-market is a direct result of automated deployments’ improved software release reliability and velocity.
  3. Configuration Management for Version Control and Change Management: Configuration management makes it easy to manage changes and versions of everything from code and settings to infrastructure. This allows for comprehensive auditing, simple rollbacks, and change tracking, all of which contribute to a safer and more regulated software development process.
    Infrastructure as Code (IaC) approaches in configuration management enable teams to define and manage infrastructure using code, which increases scalability and flexibility. The ability to scale and adapt infrastructure resources to different workloads and requirements is made possible by this.
  4. Teamwork and Interaction: Configuration management promotes enhanced teamwork and interaction between the operations and development teams. Both groups can collaborate more effectively and make sure software releases are in line with business requirements if they have access to the same configuration data.
  5. Security and Compliance: Configuration management ensures compliance with legislation and standards for security by enforcing consistent configurations and automatic security procedures. Quickly finding and fixing security flaws is much easier with version control and regular audits.
    Reduced Downtime and Speedier Recovery: Configuration management allows for rapid recovery by reverting to a stable, known configuration in the event of faults. As a result, problems are fixed more quickly and downtime is reduced.
  6. Implementing Change Efficiently: By centralizing and automating configuration management tasks, teams are free to concentrate on releasing updated and new features. It makes development and deployment more efficient and less likely that configurations will drift.

For software development and deployment lifecycles to be more organized, automated, and consistent, configuration management is an essential part of DevOps. As a result, teams are able to create software more quickly, with fewer mistakes, and in a more controlled and dependable way, which helps DevOps principles and practices succeed.

Q22: Pick three key performance indicators (KPIs) for devops

Time needed for modifications: It is a measure of how long it takes for a change to go from the code repository to production.
The frequency of deployment is defined as the number of times a specific time period sees changes pushed into production.
The MTTR is a measure of how long it typically takes for a service to get back up and running after a failure or interruption.
Asking number 23: What are the technical and business advantages of a DevOps culture in the workplace?
Among the numerous technical and financial advantages brought about by a DevOps work culture are:

Advantages through Technology:

Shorter development-to-deployment cycles and faster release cycles are two benefits of DevOps that contribute to a shorter time to market.
Software of higher quality is the end result of DevOps’s emphasis on cooperation between the development and operations teams.
Better resource allocation, reduced human error, and automated processes are the three main ways in which DevOps improves reliability and scalability.

Gains for the Company:

Efficiency gains and cost reductions: DevOps helps businesses deliver software more quickly and with fewer mistakes, which boosts efficiency and cuts costs.
Customer satisfaction rises as a result of greater responsiveness to customer concerns and new feature releases made possible via DevOps.
The ability to move quicker and more efficiently than rivals is a key benefit of DevOps, which boosts competitiveness.

Q24: When it comes to development and infrastructure, what are the main operations of DevOps?
When it comes to development and infrastructure, DevOps’s main functions are:

The term “continuous integration” (CI) refers to the practice of automatically merging several builds and tests into one larger process.
Automated delivery of code updates into production following successful testing is known as Continuous Deployment (CD).
Bypassing manual configuration in favor of code-based management and provisioning is known as “Infrastructure as Code” (IaC).
System and application configuration management that is both automated and overseen is known as configuration management.
Keeping an eye on how well systems and apps are running and recording any important data or events that occur is what monitoring and logging are all about.
The term “security” refers to the practice of making sure systems and applications are secure before, during, and after their deployment and operation.

Collaborating: Encouraging a culture of shared accountability for the delivery and operation of systems and applications, and facilitating collaboration between development and operations teams.

Q25. Do you think of DevOps as an Agile approach?

Even while DevOps isn’t technically an Agile technique, it can greatly enhance software development when applied alongside Agile methods. In contrast to DevOps’ emphasis on enhancing communication and cooperation between the operations and development teams to speed up software releases to production, the agile methodology prioritizes the regular delivery of small, functional software increments. Since DevOps can aid Agile teams in reaching their objective of dependable and rapid product delivery, it can be considered as a supplementary methodology to Agile.

Common Questions About Version Control Systems (VCS) in DevOps Interviews

Here are a few VCS interview questions for you to review.

A1. Can you explain version control?
As far as interview questions go, this one is likely to be the easiest. A definition of version control should be provided first, in my opinion. It is a mechanism that keeps track of modifications made to a file or group of files over time, allowing you to retrieve specific versions at a later point. To implement a version control system, a group of people can work together in a shared repository and make edits to files or sets of files. After that, you can talk about how version control is useful.

Utilizing version control enables you to:

Put files back to their original state.
Go back to an earlier point in the project’s history.
Evaluate the evolution during time.
Check the last change made to a potentially problematic item to see who made the change.
Discover the origin and timing of an issue.

Q2: Why is version control useful?

Here are some benefits of version control that I think you should highlight:

Team members can easily collaborate on any file at any time with Version Control System (VCS). When you’re ready, you can combine all the changes into one version using VCS.

The version control system (VCS) neatly stores all the previous versions and variations. At your fingertips is a whole project snapshot, and you may request any version whenever you need it.

You are prompted to give a brief explanation of the changes made every time you save a new version of your project in your VCS. Furthermore, the content of the file may be seen to reveal the precise changes made to it. You can see exactly who made what edit to the project in this way.

With a distributed version control system (VCS) like Git, every team member has access to the whole project history; this means that in the event of a server outage, you can always fall back on a colleague’s local repository.

Q3: Tell me about the branching tactics you’ve employed.

To help you answer this question, which is designed to gauge your branching experience, here are some things you can mention about your past work experience that pertain to branching:

Dividing features

Each feature’s updates are contained within its own branch in a feature branch model. It is common practice to merge branches into master once all automated tests for a feature have passed.

Multiple branches for tasks

In this model, the task key is part of the branch name, and each task is executed on its own branch. Searching for the task key in the branch name makes it easy to discover which code implements which task.

Splitting releases

Cloning the develop branch will allow you to create a release branch once it has enough functionality. After creating this branch, no new features can be added; instead, it should contain only release-oriented tasks, such as bug fixes, documentation generation, and so on. A version number is appended to the release and it is then merged into master when it is ready to ship. Furthermore, it ought to be remerged into the development branch, as it is possible that development has occurred since the release was started.
Finally, let them know that branching tactics differ from company to company; hence, I am familiar with the fundamentals of branching, including delete, merge, checking out a branch, etc.

Q4: Which version control system tool do you prefer?

Just say something like, “I worked on Git and one major advantage it has over other VCS tools like SVN is that it is a distributed version control system.” This will cover the version control system (VCS) tool you’ve worked on.
It is not always necessary to have a single server that stores all of the versions of a project’s files when using distributed version control systems. Instead, everything of the project’s history is stored on each developer’s hard drive because they “clone” a copy of the repository.

Q5. What is Git?

My recommendation is that you start by outlining the git architecture in the picture below before attempting to answer this question. Below is an explanation that you can refer to:

Git is utilized as a DVCS, or Distributed Version Control system. It keeps track of modifications made to a file and lets you roll back to a certain point in time.
Its distributed architecture offers numerous benefits over competing VCSs, such as SVN. One key benefit is that it does not need a centralized server to keep track of all the file versions for a project. Instead, in the event of a server outage, all that is needed for recovery is one of your teammates’ local Git repositories; this is illustrated in the diagram below with the term “local repository,” and every developer keeps a copy of the project history on their hard drive.
As you can see in the picture where all collaborators are committing changes “Remote repository,” there is also a central cloud repository where developers can make modifications and share them with other peers.

Q7. In Git how do you revert a commit that has already been pushed and made public?

There can be two answers to this question so make sure that you include both because any of the below options can be used depending on the situation:

Remove or fix the bad file in a new commit and push it to the remote repository. This is the most natural way to fix an error. Once you have made necessary changes to the file, commit it to the remote repository for that I will use
git commit -m “commit message”
Create a new commit that undoes all changes that were made in the bad do this I will use a command
git revert

Q8. How do you squash last N commits into a single commit?

git bisect

Now since you have mentioned the command above, explain what this command will do, This command uses a binary search algorithm to find which commit in your project’s history introduced a bug. You use it by first telling it a “bad” commit that is known to contain the bug, and a “good” commit that is known to be before the bug was introduced. Then Git bisect picks a commit between those two endpoints and asks you whether the selected commit is “good” or “bad”. It continues narrowing down the range until it finds the exact commit that introduced the

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